1

Abellaite

AbellaiteAbellaite. Credit Matteo Chinellato
Date December 2015

A predicted carbon mineralLocation Eureka mine, Catalonia, Spain
Chemistry NaPb2(CO3)2(OH)
Structure Hexagonal
References MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Jordi Ibáñez-Insa*
Josep J. Elvira
Núria Oriols
Xavier Llovet
Joan Viñals

 
Abellaite was named in honor of its discoverer, amateur mineral collector Joan Abella i Creus. Found in the abandoned Eureka uranium mine in Catalonia, Spain, abellaite is an example of a hydrous carbonate mineral. Such minerals are often colorless or poorly crystallized, which potentially explains why abellaite was initially overlooked at a locality abundant with 61 other known mineral species. Cotype material is deposited in the collections of the Natural History Museum of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, specimen number MGB 26.350 [report error]
 
Read more about abellaite: Carbon Mineral Challenge Update Spring 2016: Four New Minerals Found

 


2

Tinnunculite

TinnunculiteTinnunculite. Credit Fritz Schreiber.
Date January 2016

Location Mt. Rasvumchorr, Kola peninsula, Russia
Chemistry C5H4N4O3·2H2O
Structure Monoclinic:P21/c
References MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Igor V. Pekov*
Nikita V. Chukanov
Dmitriy I. Belakovskiy
Inna S. Lykova
Vasiliy O. Yapaskurt
Natalia V. Zubkova
Elena P. Shcherbakova
Sergey N. Britvin

 
Mineral collectors recently discovered several new carbon minerals in guano deposits. The organic mineral tinnunculite is composed of uric acid and forms when droppings from a European kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, interact with the air and Earth materials. The mineral is named after the bird responsible for its existence. Type material is deposited in the collections of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, registration number 4695/1. [report error]

 
Read more about tinnunculite: Carbon Mineral Challenge Update Spring 2016: Four New Minerals Found

Falco tinnunculus

Common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Credit Andreas Trepte, www.photo-natur.de


3

Marklite

Marklite, credit Gregor Markl.
Date February 2016

Location Friedrich-Christian mine, Baden-Würtenberg, Germany
Chemistry Cu5(CO3)2(OH)6·6H2O
Structure New structure type Monoclinic: P21/c; structure determined
References MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Jakub Plášil*
Anthony R. Kampf
Melanie Keuper
Radek Škoda
 
Professor Gregor Markl, University of Tübingen, Germany, discovered marklite in the dumps of the Friedrich-Christian mine in Baden-Würtenberg, Germany. Marklite has a very similar chemical composition to malachite and azurite, whose strong green and blue colors make them valuable to mineral collectors and jewelry makers. The new mineral’s name is a tribute to Markl’s significant scientific contributions to mineralogy. Type material is deposited in the mineralogical collections of the Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany, catalogue number 3586 T, and the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, USA, catalogue number 65630. [report error]

 

 
Read more about marklite: Carbon Mineral Challenge Update Spring 2016: Four New Minerals Found


4

Middlebackite

Date April 2016

Location Iron Monarch quarry, South Australia, Australia
Chemistry Cu2C2O4(OH)2
Structure New structure type, Monoclinic: P21/c; structure determined
References MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Peter Elliott
 
The manager of the Iron Monarch quarry discovered the mineral middlebackite. It was named for the quarry’s home, the Middleback Range in Australia, where another 163 minerals have been identified, 17 of them containing carbon. The middlebackite sample was discovered in 1990, but only characterized as a new mineral species some 25 years later when sophisticated analytical tools made it possible to identify the structure of this new carbon mineral. Type material is deposited in the mineralogical collections of the South Australian Museum, Adelaide, Australia, registration number G34300. [report error]
 

Read more about middlebackite: Carbon Mineral Challenge Update Spring 2016: Four New Minerals Found


5

Leószilárdite

Leószilárdite. Photographer Travis Olds.Leószilárdite. Photographer Travis Olds.
Date June 2016

Location Markey Mine, Utah, USA
Chemistry Na6Mg(UO2)2(CO3)6·6H2O
Structure New structure type, Monoclinic: C2/m; structure determined
References MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Travis A. Olds
Luke Sadergaski
Jakub Plášil
Anthony R.Kampf
Peter C. Burns
Ian M.Steele
Joe Marty
 
Leószilárdite, a rare, ephemeral, and water-soluble uranyl carbonate mineral, was a particularly exciting discovery. Uranyl minerals are radioactive and have distinctly vibrant colors with many species brightly fluorescing under ultraviolet light. In groundwater, uranium is often carried alongside carbonate, with the potential for uranium to be transported for long distances. Named in honour of Leó Szilárd, Hungarian-born physicist and inventor (1898–1964). It was found in a single area of the Markey Mine, on a seam of C-rich material deposited by an ancient stream. After mining ceased, groundwater ate away at the uraninite ore within this seam and produced abundant U-carbonate secondaries like andersonite, bayleyite, and čejkaite, with very minor leószilárdite. There was only a single specimen with diffraction worthy crystals from that trip (shown in the picture), since the bulk of the mineral occurs as pearlescent masses very thin plates. Type material is deposited in the mineralogical collections of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. [report error]
 
Read more about leószilárdite: Carbon Mineral Challenge Update: Most Structurally Complex Mineral Found


6

Ewingite

Ewingite. Photographer Travis Olds.Ewingite. Photographer Travis Olds.
Date June 2016

Location Plavno Mine, Jáchymov ore district, Western Bohemia,Czech Republic
Chemistry Mg8Ca8(UO2)24(CO3)30O4(OH)12 · 138H2O
Structure New structure type, Tetragonal: I41/acd; structure determined
References MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Travis A. Olds
Jakub Plášil
Anthony R. Kampf
Peter C. Burns
Antonio Simonetti
Luke R.Sadergaski
 
Ewingite is currently the most structurally complex mineral on Earth, using the information content method given by Krivovichev 20121, at 12230 bits per unit cell1. This sample formed through oxidation of uranium under very specific conditions in the humid environment of the Plavno mine in the Czech Republic. Studies of ewingite’s unique structure are helping to unravel the connection between groundwater chemistry and crystal formation in uranium and carbonate systems. Ewingite is named in honour of Dr. Rodney C. Ewing, Professor of Geological Sciences, Frank Stanton Professor in Nuclear Security, and Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA. Type material is deposited in the mineralogical collections of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. [report error]

1. Krivovichev, S.V. (2012) Topological complexity of crystal structures: Quantitative approach. Acta Crystallographica, A68, 393–398.
Read more about ewingite: Carbon Mineral Challenge Update: Most Structurally Complex Mineral Found


7

Braunerite

Braunerite, via Mindat
Yellow braunerite crystals mixed with the olive green crystals of linekite. Via Mindat
Date June 2016

Location Svornost Mine, Jáchymov ore district, Western Bohemia,Czech Republic
Chemistry K2Ca(UO2)(CO3)3·6H2O
Structure New structure type, Monoclinic: P21/c; structure determined
References MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Jakub Plášil*
Kurt Mereiter
Anthony R. Kampf
Jan Hloušek
Radek Škoda
Jiří Čejka
Ivan Němec
Jana Ederová
 
Officially recognized as a new mineral in 2016, braunerite was discovered in the Svornost Mine in western Bohemia of the Czech Republic. It has a new unequal three-dimensional structure type comprised of networks of uranyl and carbonate ions, with a high structural complexity second only to another new carbon mineral, ewingite. The Department of Mineralogy and Petrology of the National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic and the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, USA, both contain samples of this new carbon mineral in their collections. [report error]


8

Parisite-(La)

Parisite-(La). Rruff database.
Date August 2016

A predicted carbon mineralLocation Mula mine, Tapera village, Novo Horizonte, Bahia, Brazil
Chemistry CaLa2(CO3)3F2
Structure New structure type, Monoclinic: P21/c; structure determined
References MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Daniel Atencio*
Luiz A.D. Menezes Filho
Mario L.S.C. Chaves
Nikita V. Chukanov
Ricardo Scholz
Igor Pekov
Geraldo Magela da Costa
Shaunna M. Morrison
Marcelo Andrade
Erico Freitas
Robert T. Downs
Dmitriy I. Belakovskiy
 
Parisite-(La) is a rare, hydrothermal rare earth element (REE) calcium carbonate discovered with other REE minerals, including bastnäsite-(La) and monazite-(La), in the Mula mine in Bahia, Brazil. Deposits of REE minerals are essential for the development of technology. Most high-tech devices, such as electric cars, cell phones, and LED screens, use rare-earth elements. Advanced analytical techniques, like market basket analysis, which uses known mineral locations to predict the location of new deposits, are making it much faster and easier to discover these critical materials. Type material is deposited in the mineralogical collections of the Museu de Ciência e Técnica, Escola de Minas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Praça Tiradentes, Centro, Brazil, and at the University of Arizona Mineral Museum, Tucson, AZ. [report error]


9

Roymillerite

roymilleriteAggregate of roymillerite platelets (R) intergrown with rhodochrosite and cerussite (white). Black crystals are jacobsite. Field of view 2.9 mm. Courtesy of the authors.
Date October 2016

Location Kombat Mine (Klein Otavi; Asis), Kombat, Grootfontein District, Otjozondjupa Region, Namibia
Chemistry Pb24Mg9(Si10O28)(CO3)10(BO3)(SiO4)(OH)13O5
Structure Triclinic .
References MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Nikita V. Chukanov*
Erik Jonsson
Sergey M. Aksenov
Sergey N. Britvin
Ramiza K. Rastsvetaeva
Dmitriy I. Belakovskiy

 
Structurally related to britvinite and molybdophyllite [report error]
 

 

 


10

Markeyite

MarkeyiteMarkeyite. 2-1.7mm FOV. Photo courtesy of Anthony Kampf.
Date February 2017

Location Markey mine, Red Canyon, White Canyon District, San Juan Co., Utah, USA
Chemistry Ca9(UO2)4(CO3)13·28H2O
Structure New structure type
References MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Anthony R. Kampf*
Jakub Plášil
Anatoly V. Kasatkin
Joe Marty
Jirí̌ Čejka
 
The new mineral markeyite was named for the Markey mine in Red Canyon, Utah, USA, where it was first found. Markeyite is among more than 30 new minerals discovered in several uranium mines in Red Canyon. Collectors often employ ultraviolet lights to locate likely spots to collect because many of the secondary uranyl minerals, such as markeyite, are fluorescent. Typically, they use standard collecting tools, such as hammers and chisels, but they usually switch to more gentle tools for the final step because these minerals occur as delicate efflorescences on the mine walls. Cotype material is deposited in the collections of the Natural History Museum, Los Angeles County, 900 Exposition Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90007, USA, catalogue numbers 67091 (holotype), 67092, 67093, 67094 and 69095 (cotype), and the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, registration number 4932/1 (cotype). Markeyite photos courtesy of Anthony Kampf. [report error]
 

Markeyite

Markeyite. 1.1mm FOV. Photo courtesy of Anthony Kampf.

Markeyite

Markeyite. 1.6mm FOV. Kampf notes that the white to pink balls are calcite and the black matrix is asphaltum. Photo courtesy of Anthony Kampf.

Markeyite.

Markeyite. 1.6mm FOV. Photo courtesy of Anthony Kampf.

Markeyite

Markeyite. 1.6mm FOV. Photo courtesy of Anthony Kampf.


11

Stracherite

stracheriteA scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of stracherite. Stracherite is white, spurrite is grey, fluormayenite is dark grey. Image courtesy of Evgeny V. Galuskin and Irina O. Galuskina.
Date March 2017

Location Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel, near Arad city.
Chemistry BaCa6(SiO4)2[(PO4)(CO3)]2F
Structure Trigonal: R3m; structure determined
References MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Evgeny V. Galuskin*
Biljana Krüger
Irina O. Galuskina
Hannes Krüger
Yevgeny Vapnik
Anuschka Pauluhn
Vincent Olieric
 
Stracherite is the first carbonate-bearing member of the very rare nabimusaite mineral group. This mineral boasts a unique and surprising chemistry that scientists behind the Carbon Mineral Challenge did not predict. Initially discovered in spurrite-bearing marbles of the Hatrium Formation in the Negev Desert, Israel, the holotype sample of this mineral is deposited in the collections of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum in Moscow, Russia. [report error]

 


12

Triazolite

Triazolite crystalsTriazolite crystals, photo by M. Burkhardt.
Date August 2017

Location Pabellón de Pica, Chanabaya, Iquique Province, Tarapacá Region, Chile
Chemistry NaCu2(N3C2H2)2(NH3)2Cl3·4H2O
Structure Orthorhombic, 2 2 2 – Disphenoidal
References MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Nikita V. Chukanov*
Natalia V. Zubkova
Gerhard Möhn
Igor V. Pekov
Dmitriy I. Belakovskiy
Konstantin V. Van
Sergey N. Britvin
Dmitry Y. Pushcharovsky
 
Guano deposits are the source of several recently discovered new minerals. A bird, the guanay cormorant, Phalacrocorax bougainvillei, is the most likely source of the guano that produced the newly discovered–and exquisitely beautiful–mineral triazolite. Crystals of triazolite overgrow surfaces of hard rock (gabbro) or occur in cavities in aggregates of salammoniac, a rare mineral composed of ammonium chloride. Triazolite is chemically and structurally related to chanabayaite, for which it is a precursor phase. Mineral collectors first found triazolite in the Tarapacá region of Chile. d. Type material is deposited in the collections of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, registration number 5037/1. [report error]
 
Read more about triazolite: Intertwined Discovery
 

Nikita Chukanov and his discovery of triazolite

This photo depicts the guano deposit situated at Pabellón de Pica, Chile. Chukanov believes that Guanay cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvillei) was the most important producer of Chilean guano.

Triazolite locality in Chile, credit N. Chukanov


13

Somersetite

Somersetite, courtesy of Oleg SiidraSomersetite, courtesy of Oleg Siidra.
Date September 2017

Location Torr Works Quarry (Merehead Quarry), Cranmore, Somerset, England, UK
Chemistry Pb8O(OH)4(CO3)5
Structure New structure type.
References Cambridge Core, MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Oleg I. Siidra*
Diana O. Nekrasova
Rick Turner
Anatoly N. Zaitsev
Nikita V. Chukanov
John Spratt
Yury S. Polekhovsky
Mike Rumsey
 
Somersetite was found at the Torr Works quarry in Somerset in the United Kingdom. It was named for the county in southwest England where it was discovered. Somersetite is green or white, hexagonal in shape, and has a structure unseen before in either minerals or inorganic compounds. Its structural architecture is unique among all other known layered structures. Somersetite is distantly related to the minerals hydrocerussite and plumbonacrite, known as the main constituents of white paints of the past. The Department of Mineralogy, Saint-Petersburg State University in Saint-Petersburg, Russia, is home to the precious holotype sample of this new carbon mineral. [report error]
 

Torr Works Quarry, Cranmore, Somerset, England, UK

Somersetite was found at Torr Works Quarry, Somerset, England, UK . Photo by Graham Richards [CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons

Somersetite

Somersetite, courtesy of Oleg Siidra.


14

Marchettiite

MarchettiiteMarchettiite
Date October 2017

Location Type Locality:Mt. Cervandone, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province, Piedmont, Italy
Chemistry C5H7N5O3
Structure Triclinic .
References MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Alessandro Guastoni*
Fabrizio Nestola
Paolo Gentile
Federico Zorzi
Sergio Andò
Alessandra Lorenzetti
Vittorio Mattioli
 
Marchettiite is an organic ammonium hydrogen urate formed by circulation of meteoric waters at low temperatures, and enriched with soluble altered biological material. This mineral is essentially a molecule of ammonia combined with a molecule of uric acid, with biological origins that can be traced to the urine or feces of a bird or other animal. Type material is deposited in the collections of the Museum of Mineralogy, University of Padova, Via Giotto 1, I-35122, Padova, Italy, catalogue number MMP M17892. [report error]
 
Read more about marchettiite: Marchettiite joins the New Carbon Mineral Roster as #13

 


15

Ramazzoite

RamazzoiteRamazzoite crystals on/with black goethite and orange lepidocrocite. Field of view is 0.5 mm across. Photo Anthony Kampf, published in European Journal of Mineralogy.
Date December 2017

Location Monte Ramazzo mine, Genova, Liguria, Italy
Chemistry [Mg8Cu12(PO4)(CO3)4(OH)24(H2O)20][(H0.33SO4)3(H2O)36]
References MINDAT, European Journal of Mineralogy.
Discovery Team
Anthony R. Kampf*
George R. Rossman
Chi Ma
Donato Belmonte
Cristian Biagioni
Fabrizio Castellaro
Luigi Chiappino
 
Ramazzoite is the first mineral found in nature that contains a polyoxometalate cation, or positively charged ion. Polyoxometalate ions are made up of clusters of metal atoms bound together by oxygen atoms. While scientists have produced many compounds with polyoxometalate anions (negatively charged ions) in the laboratory, polyoxometalate cations are extremely rare. Another unique feature of ramazzoite is that it has a large variety of anions. Typically, a mineral has just one or two types of anion, but ramazzoite contains four–phosphate, carbonate, hydroxide, and sulfate–making ramazzoite a truly extraordinary find.  [report error]
 
Read more about ramazzoite: One of Two New Carbon Minerals is First of Its Kind
 


16

Paddlewheelite

Paddlewheelite photo by Travis OldsPaddlewheelite photo by Travis Olds.
Date January 2018

Location Klement vein, Svornost Mine (Einigkeit Mine), Jáchymov (St Joachimsthal), Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Czech Republic

Chemistry MgCa5Cu2(UO2)4(CO3)12(H2O)33
Structure Monoclinic .
References MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Travis A. Olds*
Jakub Plásil
Anthony R. Kampf
Fabrice Dal Bo
Peter C. Burns
 
Paddlewheelite is one of the rarest carbonate minerals found in the Svornost mine in the Czech Republic, and among the rarest of all known carbonate minerals. Paddlewheelite has a unique structure suggesting the paddle wheel of an old-fashioned steamboat. Uranyl carbonate clusters form the wheel, which is held together by axles made of copper and with a gearbox made of calcium atoms. [report error]
 

Read more about paddlewheelite: One of Two New Carbon Minerals is First of Its Kind

 

 


17

Phoxite

PhoxitePhoxite. FOV 0.683mm. Photo courtesy of Joe Marty.
Date April 2018

Location Rowley Mine (Rawley Mine; Reliance Mine; Reliance Copper Mine; Rainbow Mine; Theba Mine; San Carlos patented claim #4524), Theba, Painted Rock District, Painted Rock Mts, Maricopa Co., Arizona, USA
Chemistry (NH4)2Mg2(C2O4)(PO3OH)2(H2O)4
Structure Monoclinic .
References MINDAT.
Discovery Team
Anthony R. Kampf*
Aaron J. Celestian
Barbara P. Nash
Joe Marty

 
New structure type. Unique combination of elements. Also unique combination of anions: the first mineral with essential (hydroxy)phosphate and oxalate anions. [report error]
 

 

 


18

Fiemmeite

fiemmeitefiemmeite
Date May 2018

Location Val Gardena Sandstone exposure near San Lugano pass, Carano, Fiemme Valley, Trento Province, Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol), Italy
Chemistry Cu2(C2O4)(OH)2·2H2O
Structure Monoclinic .
References MINDAT, Minerals.
Discovery Team
Francesco Demartin*
Italo Campostrini
Paolo Ferretti
Ivano Rocchetti

 
Another Cu-bearing oxalate mineral. [report error]
 

 

 


19

Meyrowitzite

meyrowitziteMeyrowitzite. 0.4mmFOV. Courtesy of the authors.
Date May 2018

Location Markey Mine, Red Canyon, White Canyon District, San Juan Co., Utah, USA
structure Monoclinic
Chemistry Ca(UO2)(CO3)2·5H2O
References MINDAT
Discovery Team
Anthony R. Kampf*
Jakub Plášil
Travis A. Olds
Barbara P. Nash
Joe Marty

 
[report error]
 

 


20

Alterite

Alterite. Malcom Alter, via Rruff.Alterite. Malcom Alter, via Rruff.
Date October 2018

Location Cliff Dwellers Lodge, Coconino Co., Arizona, USA
structure Monoclinic
Chemistry Zn2Fe3+4(SO4)4(C2O4)2(OH)4 · 17H2O
References MINDAT, Rruff.

 

 


21

Aravaite

Date October 2018

Ba2Ca18(SiO4)6(PO4)3(CO3)F3O
Hatrurim Complex, Negev Desert, near Arad city, Israel (31°13’58”N, 35°16’2”E)
Evgeny V.Galuskin*, Biljana Krüger, Irina O. Galuskina, Hannes Krüger and Yevgeny Vapnik
*E-mail: evgeny.galuskin@us.edu.pl
Arctite supergroup
Trigonal: R-3m; structure determined
a = 7.1255(1), c = 66.2902(1) Å
3.566(60), 3.075(89), 2.776(86), 2.764(57), 2.157(39), 1.967(50), 1.783(100), 1.498(49)
Type material is deposited in the collections of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian
Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy Prospekt 18-2, Moscow 119071, Russia, registration number
4960/1


22

Akopovaite

Date October 2018

23

Uroxite

Date November 2018